In this work, Jacques LeGoff, one of the truly great medieval historians of our times, magisterially plumbs the depths of the fundamental contradiction of Saint Louis: is it possible to be both a king and a saint?
Louis lies at the intersection of reasons of state and divine reason; he is an individual around whom LeGoff turns like a detective searching for an ever-elusive truth, that of a life and a legend inextricably intertwined.
A fine, eminently readable translation. Morrissey, University of Chicago. He ruled when France was at the height of power; he commanded the largest army in Europe and controlled the wealthiest kingdom. Renowned for his patronage of the arts, Louis was equally famous for his decision to imitate the suffering Christ as a humbly attired, bearded penitent.
More than simply a biography of Louis IX of France, this magisterial work by a member of the Annales School of historiography is an examination of the historian's craft. After treating in detail Louis Among his honors is the Dr. This English translation includes the appendices, chronology, and genealogical tables from the French edition. Labirint Ozon. Saint Louis. Armed with the considerable resources of the nouvel historienJacques Le Goff mines existing materials about Saint Louis to forge a new historical biography of the king.
Part of his ambitious project is to reconstruct the mental universe of the thirteenth century: Le Goff describes the scholastic and intellectual background of Louis' reign and, most importantly, he discusses methodology and the interpretation of written sources--their composition, provenance, and reliability. Le Goff divides his unconventional biography into three parts.
In the first, he gives us the contours of Louis' life from birth to death in the usual context of family dynamics and genealogy, courtly and regional politics, and shifts in economic, social, and cultural life.
In sifting through the historical accounts of the king's life, Le Goff determines that it is Louis IX's profound sense of moral and religious purpose--his desire to become the ideal Christian ruler--that colors his every action from boyhood on; it is also, for Le Goff, what renders contemporary accounts problematic and what necessitates further scrutiny.
That dissection of sources occupies the second part. Le Goff's intention is to pare away the layers of homily and anecdote produced by the king's early biographers to discover the true Saint Louis. Questioning whether Saint Louis was merely the invention of his eulogists, Le Goff penetrates beyond the literary and hagiographical evidence to the human behind the legend.
He brilliantly analyzes Louis' progress toward his unique self-creation and its subsequent mythologizing. In the third part, Le Goff highlights the contradictions within Louis and his historical image that previous chroniclers have elided or overlooked. In the end, he leaves us with the saint, rather than the king, with all the paradoxes embedded in that role. The Results of Expansion 20 Religious. From Marriage to the Crusade.The French historian Jacques Le Goff, who has died aged 90, specialised in the middle ages, which he defined — taking the long view — as stretching from the 5th to the 18th centuries.
His case was that the period had a character of its own, and should not be seen as paving the way to modern times: it was during the medieval era, he argued, that Christianity, modern languages, towns, universities and the idea of Europe all emerged.
He also acknowledged the cruelties and injustices of the period. Le Goff's historiographical approach was based on that used by Marc Bloch and Fernand Braudel in the influential journal Annales, emphasising long-term social history, ideas, and the conditions of ordinary people, rather than more traditional political or military themes.
His earliest books, Merchants and Bankers in the Middle Ages and Intellectuals in the Middle Ageswere on conventional subjects but took a fresh approach in highlighting the importance of towns. Universities were located in towns, so intellectuals were as much a part of the urban scene as those engaged in commerce. He was heavily influenced by social anthropology, which gave him insights into human relations and ways of thinking.
The Birth of Purgatory showed how the adoption of the doctrine that souls after death spent time in an intermediate state before judgment had wide-reaching social implications. The living could influence the time spent in purgatory and this gave rise to an elaborate infrastructure of funding for clergy who prayed for the souls of the departed.
Le Goff also published books and essays on the subjects of time, imagination, usury and memory — now commonplace, but then new ground broken by an author who regarded traditional histories of events as boring. In taking this all-encompassing perspective, he lived up to Bloch's maxim that a good historian should resemble the ogre of legend in hunting human flesh: all aspects of humanity should be subjected to historical inquiry.
Contemporary admirers of the Annales approach were disapproving of Le Goff's decision to write biographies of Louis IX of Francea model king who was canonised, and St Francis of Assisi They need not have worried that he was reverting to an outmoded form of historical writing: only a third of the Louis book was devoted to a narrative of events; the rest consisted of analysis of cultural dimensions of kingship, religion and family.
Le Goff's ideas were formed from the circumstances of his life. He was born in Toulon to an anti-clerical schoolteacher father, who had fought in the first world war, and a mother who was a left-leaning Roman Catholic piano teacher. Jacques understood Catholicism but was attracted by his father's republican virtues. As a boy he supported the Popular Front, and when France was occupied during the second world war he went into the hills. After some short-term academic jobs, in he was appointed a professor and then director of the sixth section of the Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes later renamed the Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Socialesand in its president.
In France he was known not only for his books and broadcasting — for a long time he had a weekly history programme on the radio — but for his republican idealism and his European outlook, his studies and research having taken him to Czechoslovakia, the UK, Italy and Poland. His works were translated into English and many other European languages. An event in June points to the prominence of academic historians in public life in parts of mainland Europe.
Geremek failed to arrive from Poland, but his text did. Bloch, shot by the occupying forces inis remembered as a hero; Geremek went on to be Poland's foreign minister; and Le Goff delivered the latter's account of the former with a passion that is still remembered by those who were there. He was hit hard by her death inbut continued to write from his small Paris flat.
He is survived by his children, Barbara and Thomas. History books. Jacques Le Goff obituary. Historian who reinterpreted the middle ages as an era of distinctive character and development. Jacques Le Goff was heavily influenced by social anthropology, which gave him insights into human relations. Christopher Dyer.Jump to navigation. Jerome: Introduction. Hilberg, CSEL For a catalogue of extant manuscripts that can be assigned to specific English medieval libraries, see Ker, Medieval Libraries of Great Britain.
For a bibliographical listing of Jerome's works, see Altaner and Stuiber, Patrologiepp. See Quentin, Les martyrologes historiquesp. A valuable recent account of the medieval hagiography concerning Jerome, to which I am much indebted, is that of Rice, Saint Jerome in the Renaissancepp.
For the ME version, see the edition below, lines Posidonius [a hermit of Bethlehem] had lived with him a goodly number of days and he whispered into my ear: "The fine Paula who takes care of him is going to die and escape his meanness, I believe.
And because of him no holy man will live in these parts. His anger would drive out even his own brother. Meyer, pp. Ryan, 2.
Jerome's cult in Rome and the forged letter collection are discussed by Rice, Saint Jerome in the Renaissancepp. Jeromelines Birger Bergh et al. Collins, pp. Austinpp. See also Bridgettine Breviaryed. Collins, p. Collins Bridgettine Breviarypp.
For the text of the Myrouresee Blunt, ed. See also Hutchison, "Devout Reading," p. But Doyle remarks that the small number, and monastic milieu, of the surviving copies indicate in this case that Winter's work failed to gain an audience outside religious circles, since even the printed edition by de Worde was probably produced for Syon Abbey itself.
See "Publication by Members of the Religious Orders," pp. Augustine to Cyril of Jerusalem. See the edition by Hamer and Russell, Supplementary Livespp.
McCann, p. There is no provision for a proper Office for Jerome in the Breviary itself, which reflects the Syon nuns' own liturgical "use. Blunt, p. According to Collins Bridgettine Breviaryp.Foreword by Jacques Le Goff. Most users should sign in with their email address. If you originally registered with a username please use that to sign in.
To purchase short term access, please sign in to your Oxford Academic account above. Don't already have an Oxford Academic account?
Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide.
Sign In or Create an Account. Sign In. Advanced Search. Search Menu. Article Navigation. Close mobile search navigation Article Navigation. Volume Article Contents. Michael Camille Michael Camille. University of Chicago. Oxford Academic. Google Scholar. Select Format Select format. Permissions Icon Permissions. Article PDF first page preview. Issue Section:. You do not currently have access to this article.Le Goff saw the Middle Ages as a pivotal period in European history when extraordinary social and economic progress combined with the vast influence of the Roman Catholic Church to create the modern world.
He retired from teaching in Jacques Louis Le Goff. Info Print Cite. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Home World History Historians.
Melinda C. Shepherd Melinda Shepherd received a B. See Article History. Originally published in the Britannica Book of the Year. Presented as archival content. Learn more. Unlike most articles on Britannica. Rather, they are presented on the site as archival content, intended for historical reference only. Shepherd Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. As late as…. Annales schoolSchool of history.
Sir Walter ScottScottish novelist, poet, historian, and biographer who is often considered both the inventor and the greatest practitioner of the historical novel.
History at your fingertips.
Sign up here to see what happened On This Dayevery day in your inbox! Email address. By signing up, you agree to our Privacy Notice. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox.
More About.Goff is a surname with several distinct origins, mainly GermanicCelticJewishand French. It is the th most common family name in the United States. The German Goff means a godly person, a strong warrior, or a priest. The Breton goff means "smith" cognate with Gaelic gobha. The English-originating surname is common in East Angliawhere it is of Breton origin.
The Welsh name is a variant of the surname Goughand is derived from a nickname for someone with red hair. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Goff disambiguation. Retrieved 24 October Surnames associated with the occupation of smith. Mchedlidze Mchedlishvili. Funke Vonck Vonk. Surname list. Categories : Occupational surnames Surnames German-language surnames Cornish-language surnames Breton-language surnames Dutch-language surnames Jewish surnames English-language surnames French-language surnames.
Hidden categories: Articles with short description Short description is different from Wikidata All set index articles. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file.
Download as PDF Printable version. Wikimedia Commons. Add links. Germanic countriesCeltic countriesIsraelFrance. Surname list This page lists people with the surname Goff.
If an internal link intending to refer to a specific person led you to this page, you may wish to change that link by adding the person's given name s to the link.Stay away from DirecTV. It took me over 20 minutes on 3 occasions to get a customer representative.
It wouldn't take as long to get a customer service rep If they didn't have to read a script. A simple 2 minute call takes 20 minutes. Send the customer rep hung up on me.
That's what you get for dealing with foreign countries to save a few cents. I'm ready to turn in my receivers. Helpful Be the first one to find this review helpful Tim of Scottsdale, AZ Verified Reviewer Original review: Dec.
It has not been 5 weeks since I ordered and every time I call someone from India comes on the line. It takes on average an hour to get through all the correspondence with them because of lack of English and understanding. The last time he just left and put in his log that I cancelled the order. Helpful 4 people found this review helpful Stephanie of Spring, TX Verified Reviewer Original review: Dec. I've had the runaround. Our bill was not due nor late. Our DIRECTV was disconnected. Finally after 3 hours I get someone to reconnect our DIRECTV.
These two companies have continually price gouged us and I constantly have to fight over bill hikes. I would highly discourage anyone from getting these services. Helpful 3 people found this review helpful BLANCA of Orlando, FL Verified Reviewer Original review: Dec. Have called 5 times and every time representative says they will call back with a resolution. I just spoke to another representative who left me on hold.
Customer service is the worst. Helpful 4 people found this review helpful Ken of Yorba Linda, CA Verified Reviewer Original review: Dec.
Full Cast & Crew
We do this 2-3 times per year, it is 30 minutes on the phone and sometimes no success. Today they passed me of to 3 different people. Each one made an attempt to switch my local channel service on one location to another.
Someone in the process screwed up my account now they have to get engineering involved. I did give each representative my cell so they can communicate updates via text or call. I don't want them past the 90 days, so I called to cancel early and was told that I can't cancel early. How does that work. Call the next day after I have been charged.
Then battle to get my money back. I just don't understand why the channels can't just be set up to fall off my bill on a certain date.